On April 23 1920, the first Turkish Grand National Assembly was opened, and this date is accepted as the day when Turkish people officially declared their sovereignty. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of the Turkish Republic, declared that day as a holiday in 1924. Five years after, he declared it a national children's and Sovereignty day. Ataturk also wanted to gift this day not only to Turkish children, but also the children of the world. Therefore, in 1979, with the participation of 6 other countries, April 23, became an international day.
On May 19, 1919, Ataturk arrived in Samsun and started the Independence War for Turkish people. Ataturk gave a great deal of importance on that day. He said that May 19 is the starting day of the liberation war and started writing his famous book that is now known as the "Nutuk" that day. Ataturk, who was the biggest supporter of the youth of Turkey, gifted this important day to them. First, the day started to be celebrated as sports day and then, it was named sports and youth day. On every May 19, young people from Turkey come together in large stadiums in their cities and present various sportive and festive performances. Military forces also make a parade and celebrate May 19, both as a remembrance for Ataturk and his support.
On August 30, 1922, the Turkish army with Ataturk won the Battle of Dumlupinar. This victory represents the end of the Turkish Independence War. After the triumph of Dumlupinar, Ataturk and friends started to work on the Republic. This military victory is especially crucial for the Army. In every August 30, military forces make celebrations by various performances, including parades. That day is known as as the graduation day for all military schools in Turkey and soldiers are promoted this day.
October 29 is the most important national holiday in Turkey. It is celebrated for the declaration of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. The Turkish Assembly declared the establishment of the republic. October 29 is important for people as this was the date when Ataturk announced their freedom from sultans. On this date, every year, Turkish people join in each city and present their gratitude to Ataturk. All bodies of the government announce their messages on this day, visit Anitkabir and a Republic Reception is organized in the evening. People of Turkey go out, get together in avenues and celebrate this day with great joy.